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This system was developed by German gem expert, Friedrich Mohs in 1812 and is still in use today. The scale involves a numerical value of 1 through 10, with 1 being the most easily scratched, and 10 being the most scratch-resistant.

MOHS SCALE OF GEMSTONE HARDNESS

Gem/Mineral Hardness Birthstone
*Amber 2.5
*Ivory 2.5
*Jet 2.5
*Mabe Shell 2.5
Serpentine 2.5-5.0
*Tortoise Shell 2.5
Calcite 3.0
*Pearl 3.0 June
Azurite 3.5
*Coral 3.5
Fluorite 4.0
Malachite 4.0
Rhodocrosite 4.0
Apatite 5.0
Dioptase 5.0
Moldavite 5.0
Obsidian 5.0
Titanite 5.0
Diopside 5.5
Lapis 5.5 December
Milarite 5.5
Sodalite 5.5
Black Opal 6.0 October
Labradorite 6.0
Moonstone 6.0 June
Opal 6.0 October
Orthoclase 6.0
Rhodonite 6.0
Scapolite 6.0
Spectrolite 6.0
Sunstone 6.0
Turquoise 6.0 December
Andradite 6.5
Demantoid 6.5 January
Fire opal 6.5 October
Hematite 6.5
Nephrite Jade 6.5
Peridot 6.5 August
Tanzanite 6.5 December
Kyanite 7.0-5.0
Agate 7.0
Amethyst 7.0 February
Ametrine 7.0
Aventurine 7.0
Bloodstone 7.0 March
Blue Chalcedony 7.0
Carnelian 7.0
Cat's Eye Quartz 7.0
Chrysoprase 7.0
Gem/Mineral Hardness Birthstone
Citrine 7.0 November
Goldenite 7.0
Grossular Garnet 7.0 January
Hiddenite 7.0
Iolite 7.0
Jadeite Jade 7.0
Jasper 7.0
Kunzite 7.0
Mandarin Garnet 7.0 January
Onyx 7.0
Petrified Wood 7.0
Quartz Crystal 7.0 April
Rhodolite 7.0 January
Rose Quartz 7.0
Sard 7.0
Sardonyx 7.0 August
Smokey Quartz 7.0
Spessartine 7.0
Tiger's Eye Quartz 7.0
Tsavorite 7.0 January
Hessonite 7.25 January
Pyrope 7.25 January
Almandine Garnet 7.5 January
Andalusite 7.5
Aquamarine 7.5 March
Danburite 7.5
Emerald 7.5 May
Goshenite 7.5
Heliodor 7.5
Hyacinth 7.5
Indicolite 7.5
Morganite 7.5
Red Beryl 7.5
Rubellite 7.5
Sillimanite 7.5
Tourmaline 7.5 October
Uvarovite Garnet 7.5 January
Zircon 7.5 December
Blue Topaz 8.0 December
Spinel 8.0
Topaz 8.0 November
Alexandrite 8.5 June
Cat's Eye Chrysoberyl 8.5
Blue Sapphire 9.0 September
Padparadscha 9.0 September
Ruby 9.0 July
Sapphire 9.0 September
Diamond 10.0 April

Note: Any gemstone listed above can be scratched by any gemstone with the same hardness,or any harder gemstone farther down the list.

*not technically a gem or mineral, but organic matter

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